Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1 Satellite, United States of America
Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) 1 is one of the three new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental satellites being developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in partnership with Nasa. The JPSS series consists of three satellites, namely Suomi-NPP, JPSS-1 and JPSS-2.
The JPSS-1 satellite is scheduled to be launched atop Delta II rocket in September 2017. To be called NOAA-20 during operational phase, the satellite will be used for monitoring global environmental conditions, and to collect and disseminate data related to weather, atmosphere and oceans.
JPSS-1 satellite design and development
Designed for a lifespan of seven years, the JPSS-1 satellite will be based on Ball Configurable Platform (BCP)-2000 platform developed by Ball Aerospace.
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation (BATC) was awarded with a contract to design and manufacture and provide advanced instruments and sensors, as well as components, data exploitation systems and RF solutions in August 2012.
The satellite manufacturing and integration was completed at Ball Aerospace's Fisher integration centre in Boulder, Colorado, US.
JPSS-1 underwent vibration and acoustic testing in April 2016, followed by electromagnetic interference (EMI), compatibility and environmental tests in July 2016. Thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC) testing was completed in August 2016.
The satellite will have a launch mass of 2,450kg.
Instruments onboard JPSS-1 satellite
JPSS-1 satellite will be fitted with five advanced remote sensing instruments. One of them will be the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS), which was developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems. It will be used for the collection of visible and infrared imagery and global observations of land, atmosphere, cryosphere and oceans, even in the lowest moonlit conditions.
The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) instrument manufactured by Northrop Grumman will provide atmospheric temperature and moisture for operational weather and climate applications.
Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) FM6 manufactured by Northrop Grumman will enable the satellite to measure reflected sunlight and thermal radiation released on Earth.
The cross-track infrared sounder (CrIS) instrument developed by ITT Exelis will provide accurate, detailed atmospheric temperature and moisture observations for weather and climate applications.
The advanced ozone mapping and profiler suite (OMPS) instrument by Ball Aerospace will be used for tracking the health of the ozone layer and measuring the ozone concentration in the Earth's atmosphere.
Launch vehicle details
JPSS-1 satellite will be launched aboard United Launch Alliance's (ULA's) Delta II launch vehicle. The satellite will have a launch mass of 2,450kg and the launch will be powered by nine solid rocket boosters.
The launch will be performed from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, US.
JPSS mission details
The objective of JPSS constellation satellites is to gather global measurements of atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic conditions. JPSS-1 will collect data relating to sea and land surface temperatures, vegetation, clouds, rainfall, snow and ice cover, fire locations and smoke plumes, as well as atmospheric temperature, water vapour and ozone.
The satellites in the constellation will orbit from pole-to-pole 14 times a day and will provide high-resolution images of the planet twice a day. They will help storm tracking and monitor ship traffic.
The satellite system will provide observations for vital products and services, including forecasting severe weather conditions such as hurricanes, tornadoes and blizzards in advance. It will also assess environmental hazards such as droughts, forest fires, poor air quality and harmful coastal waters. It will offer continuity of critical, global Earth observations through 2038.
Ground control systems for JPSS
Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems was contracted to provide the JPSS Common Ground System in 2011. The CGS will be used for the integration of all future polar-orbiting environmental satellite space and ground segments with a single ground system.
The CGS will comprise primary and back-up operations centres in Maryland and West Virginia; ground receiving/transmitting stations in Norway, Antarctica, Alaska and New Mexico; and data service delivery points at Germany and Maryland. Support facilities will be in Colorado, Indianapolis and Maryland.